English writing : 6 pages : 30 hours


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Cancer Biology – Summer 2016 Exam #1

Each topic is rate 16 points.  Your accomplished response to each topic (this embraces all subcalibre of the topic) should be no longer than 2 pages double-spaced.  I gain deliberate your response accomplished at the end of the 2nd page and not discover past this extension.   Your exam should be no more than 6 pages in sum, after a whileout of the crusty famous underneath.

Please name notices (extract for this series, peculiar earliest study, and/or reconsideration profession) to patronage your response. References should thrive the notice title of “Uniform Requirements for Manuscripts Submitted to Biomedical Journals” (http://www.nlm.nih.gov/bsd/uniform_requirements.html) and be named where they are used, not honorable in a vulgar bibliography at the end of the exam.  References do not reckon in the page extension.  Figures may so be moderate and do not reckon in the page extension, but must be adequately explained in the extract.  Formatting for your instrument should embrace 12-point font and 1 inch margins.  

 

 


2. Genetic reason of cancer

2.) Read the Nursing Dissertation by Stehelin, et al. (Nature, 1976) in eReserves.  Prior to this Nursing Dissertation, there were three competing hypotheses encircling the origins of cancer in humans.  Cancer was reflection to be promptly caused by viral contamination, exogenous agents (smoking, contamination, etc.) or in noble cases where there was a lineage truth, a genetic content was acknowledged.  From the results in this Nursing Dissertation, the “oncogene hypothesis” was born and we now recognize “cancer is a genetic sickness.”  Explain the key thread in this Nursing Dissertation (8 points) and how this wild our agreement of the origins of cancer (8 points).

3. Genes confused in tumorigenesis

 

 

a.) How do we broadly categorize the genes confused in tumorigenesis? Compare and opposition these two categories after a while notice to number of hits to activate/inactivate, types of events indispensable to activation or inactivation, and functions of proteins encoded by the genes (8 points).

 

p53 and pRb are two important proteins confused in tumorigenesis.  Please explain: 

b.) How each of these proteins productions to overbear cell proliferation

c.) The physiological stresses or inputs that contact p53 and pRb signaling.  

In your interpretation so embrace: 

d.) An illustration of how each protein is activated (molecules upstream) and the downstream consequences of this and conversely

e.) What inactivates (molecules upstream) the protein and the downstream consequences of the protein nature inactivated 

(8 pts each for p53 and pRb, 2 pts from each of the indecent calibre).  

 

4Immortalization

a.) Describe the steps inevitable for a cell to befit “immortal.”  Include in your title the molecular alterations correlated after a while the steps in this way (8 points).

b.) Based on your recognizeledge of how the genes confused in cancer befit activated and inactivated, draw why the breakage-fusion-breakage cycles could guide to a enlargement habit for cells on the track from usual to cancer (4 points).  

c.) Explain the consequences of these breakage-fusion-breakage cycles on the posterior population of cancer cells (4 points).